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阳光创译 | 七条汉英同传技巧

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同传是翻译的明珠,也是诸多从事口笔译工作最希望从事的翻译工作类型,今天为大家推荐七条汉英同传技巧 (Skills for Chinese-English Simultaneous Interpreting),但这并不意味着我们倡导以语言技巧为中心,在口译同传工作中,语言处理技巧是一方面,更重要的还是专业领域的行业知识积累,只有各翻译工作的诸多技巧+各专业领域的行业知识,才是成为一名在机器翻译洪流中不被淹没淘汰的优质译者。



技巧1:Anticipation预测


在发言人话说到一半时,预测到后半句可能要讲的内容,超前翻译。预测需要建立在丰富的经验上:


Linguistic anticipation语言预测:利用对句式结构和语言搭配的丰富经验,根据上半句的结构判断出下半句的大体状况。

Extra-linguistic anticipation语言外预测:利用对会议内容的丰富经验,与对发言人语言基调的判断,预测发言人的发言内容。


1. 十三亿人口的中国保持稳定和加快发展,对促进亚太地区及世界的稳定性和发展,具有极其重要的意义。

China has 1.3 billion people. To maintainits stability and accelerate its development is playing an important role in the stability and development in Asia-Pacific and the world atlarge.

根据汉语中“对…”结构,译员可以凭经验猜测后面大概是“发挥作用”、“扮演角色”一类的表述,故大胆让英语中这个结构提前出现。


2. 我谨代表中国政府,并以我个人的名义,对各位来自英国的代表们表示热烈的欢迎,并向所有关心中国经济发展的朋友们表示衷心的感谢!预祝本次大会取得圆满成功!

On behalf of the Chinese Government, and in my personal name, I would like to extend my warmest welcome to the delegates from the UK. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to all friends who are interested in China’s economic development. I wish this conference a complete success!


在每场会议都会出现类似用语。听到“对…”和“向…”后就知道后面肯定是“欢迎”和“致谢”。



技巧 2:Paraphrasing意译


  • 在没有百分之百听懂源语时,为避免出现大段空白,或避免翻译出现实质性错误,应变翻译为意译,将困难局面模糊地应付过去。

  • 某代表谈到欧盟农业政策时,说到“If the CIF price of produce at the community border is below the guideline price as determined under the Common Market Organization, then a levy, which is not a tariff duty, is imposed.”

  • 译文:如果在欧盟边境农产品的CIF价格低于欧盟官方的指导价,则需征收一种特别税。

  • 这种意译法虽然不是很到位,但总比勉强为之,反而译错了Common Market Organization和levy要好。

Stressing强调

  • 1. 今天,专心致志进行现代化建设的中国人民,更加需要一个长期的和平国际环境和良好的周边环境。

  • Today, the Chinese people who are committed to modernization     need more than ever a long-term international environment of peace and a favorable neighboring environment.

  • 2. 这次访问给予我一直以来都向往的机会,来亲眼看一看中国人民取得的成就。

  • This visit gives me the opportunity which I have long     sought after to see for myself the achievements of the Chinese people.


技巧 3:Simplification简约


对于原文中出现的无法译成目的语的材料或技术性较强的材料,通过省略一些源于中可有可无或者有违目的语表达习惯的结构,来争取口译时间,使译语更通畅。


一、汉译英时,省略重复冗余的修辞性表达。

1. 任何人不得将个人利益置于国家利益和社会利益之上。

Nobody shall place his own interests abovethose of the state and the society.


2. 中国一贯主张裁军,反对一切军备竞赛,既反对常规军备竞赛,更反对核军备竞赛;既反对地面上的军备竞赛,也反对在太空进行的军备竞赛。

China consistently stands for disarmamentand is opposed to all kinds of arms race, conventional or nuclear, on theground or in outer space.


二、汉译英时,省略次要的信息。

1. 我们应该牢牢把握中美关系的大局,妥善解决分歧,不断朝着增进了解、扩大共识、发展合作、共创未来的目标前进。

We should take a firm hold of the overall interests of Sino-US relation and settle our differences properly so as to develop mutual understanding, cooperation and a better future.


2. 所有人都可以借助互联网资源来学习,不论他们是哪个民族、何种性别、何种肤色,只要他们可以接入互联网,都能进行学习。

All can study with the help of Internet resources, regardless of their race, nationality, and gender, as long as they have access to the Internet.



技巧 4:Addition增补


汉译英时,要适当增加一些起润滑作用的虚词,使译语逻辑关系更明确。

1. 中国是一个有五千年文明历史的国家,从历史文化来了解和认识中国,是一个重要的视角。

China is a country with 5,000 years ofcivilization. Therefore, to approach China from its history and culture forms an important perspective.

  • 加Therefore使逻辑关系更明确。

  • 几天来,我同霍克总理和澳大利亚政府其他领导人进行了深入和有益的会谈,同澳大利亚各界人士就能行了广泛的接触。我对中澳关系的前景更加满怀信心。

In these past few days, I have heldin-depth and beneficial talks with Prime Minister Hawk and other leaders of the Australian Government, as well as met with Australian personnel of various walks of life. As a result, I am even more confident about the future of Sino-Australian relations.

  • 加as well as和as a result使逻辑关系更明确。


3. 实践已充分证明,广东的发展离不开港澳,港澳的发展也离不开广东,德江书记在今年春节前夕一次座谈会上也降到:”港澳好,广东好;广东好,港澳好”。

It has been fully proved that Guangdong’sdevelopment couldn’t have been achieved without Hong Kong and Macau, while the development of Hong Kong and Macau couldn’t have been achieved without Guangdong either. Secretary Zhang Dejiang of the CPC Provincial Committee, in one of his meetings before the Spring Festival this year, also remarked, “If Hong Kong and Macau are prosperous, Guangdong will be prosperous too. And vice versa.”

  • 补充了背景信息,并加强了各独立结构之间的逻辑关系。



技巧 5:Conversion转换


在英语中,动意常常用名词来表达。在汉语中,动意常常用动词结构来表达。

汉译英时,常常要将汉语的动词转换成英语的非动词。

1. 总统批准增加拨款500万美元,解决沙漠部队饮水问题。

The president has approved an additional 5 million US dollars to provide the desert troops with drinking water.


2. 我此次访问的范围很广。这表明我国政府认识到中国正在进行的现代化建设的重要性及其对两国关系可能产生的影响。

The extentof my visit symbolizes my Government’s awareness of the importance of the modernization taking place in China and the implications of that for our relationship


3. 依靠市场力量和竞争,促进企业进取精神,在追求经济效率的过程中,这些已成为所有国家的共同点。

Reliance on market forces and competitiveness and promotion of entrepreneurial initiative in the pursuit of economic efficiency, have become common features of all countries.



技巧 6:Opposition反说


主被动变通(主动→被动)

英语中存在大量被动句,而汉语存在大量主动句。

品牌名称是能看得见、能说出来、能写出来的,而品牌标识是只能看得见而不能说出来的。(主动)

A brandname can be seen, spoken out and written out, while a brand logo can only beseen instead of being spoken out.(被动)



技巧7:Generalization归纳


提前对内容进行的预测性归纳:namely

对已经完成的内容进行总结性归纳:among   others, so on

沿海开放城市的任务是认真抓好现有企业技术改造,更新工艺技术,提高经营管理水平,致力于传统产品的更新换代和新产品的开发。

The coastal open cities should fulfill these tasks: conscientiously carrying out transformationand upgrading of technologies, improving the management and making efforts in improvement of the traditional products and the development of new products.


在“总观点---列举佐证”型的陈述中,以整体类别代替具体项目。


1. 广东是中国大陆地域经济大省,2004年广东生产总值达到16039亿元,人均生产总值达到19707元,财政总收入是3539亿元人民币,外贸进出口3571亿美元,实际利用外资直接投资到去年累计1505亿美元,生产总值占全国的1/9,外贸进出口占1.3。

Guangdong is a major economic power of China’s mainland. In 2004, Guangdong’s GDP reached 1.6039 trillion yuan, per capita GDP standing at 19,707yuan; total fiscal revenues reached 353.9 billion yuan; total import and export volume reached 357.1 billion USD; actual utilization of FDI last year totaled 150.5 billion USD, all of which accounting for a large proportion of thenational total.

2. 广东还积极推动包括闽、赣、湘、粤、桂、琼、川、黔、滇9省(区)以及港、澳两个特别行政区在内的“泛珠三角”区域合作,简称“9+2”区域合作。

Guangdong is also actively promoting thePan Pearl River Delta regional cooperation, known as the “9+2” RegionalCooperation, which involves 9 provinces or autonomous regions, and 2 special administrative regions of HongKong and Macau.


实例分析 case Analyais:

Background Information:

The remarks were made by Hu Jintao at thegala opening of the 2005 Fortune Global Forum in Beijing(2005 北京《财富》全球论坛).

Key Words:

  • 时代华纳集团:Time Warner Inc

  • 古代宫殿建筑群:ensemble of ancient royal architecture

  • 故宫:Forbidden City / Imperial Palace

  • 外汇储备:foreign exchange reserve

  • 内忧外患:domestic suffering and foreign invasion

  • 万众一心:of one mind

  • 翻两番:quadruple

  • 科学发展观:scientific approach

  • 资源节约型社会:resource-effective society

  • 列强的野蛮侵略:brutal foreign aggression /invasion

  • 封建统治的腐败无能:corrupt and incompetent feudal rulers

  • 综合国力:overall national strength

  • 小康社会:a moderately prosperous soceity


1. 在这美好的夜晚,我很高兴同大家在这里相聚,

On this beautiful evening, I am very delighted to be with you here

参加2005年北京《财富》全球论坛的开幕式。

to join in the opening ceremony of the 2005 FORTUNE Global Forum。

Knowledge of the background information


2. 首先, 我谨代表中国政府,

Tobegin with, I'd like to, on behalf of the Chinese government,

并以我个人的名义,

and in my personal name,

对各位朋友的到来(等待+预测)表示诚挚的欢迎!

express my sincere wish to all of you.

向论坛主办方美国时代华纳集团表示衷心的祝贺!

Congratulations tothe forum sponsor, Time Warner Inc!


3. 这次论坛确定以“中国和新的亚洲世纪”为主题,

This forum, with “China and the New Asian Century” as the theme,

充分表达了大家对中国和亚洲发展前景的关注,

shows that we are all concerned about the prospects of China and Asia.

表达了大家对中国及亚洲的发展对全球经济增长所发挥的作用的关注。

The development of China and Asia has played an important role in the global economy. And this role is our big concern.


4. 在经济全球化趋势深入发展的条件下,

As economic globalization continues,

中国及亚洲的发展正在成为世界经济发展(等待+预测)新的推动力量,

China and Asia are becoming a new engine for the global economic development,

世界经济发展也将给(预测)中国及亚洲发展带来新的重要机遇。

The global boom will also provide China and Asia with new opportunities.


5. 世界各国经济互利合作、相互依存的加深,

The mutual reciprocity, cooperation, and rising interdependence among the countries

必将给全球经济增长(等待+预测)创造更加美好的前景。

(等待+预测)will usher in a better future forglobal economy.


6. 中国人民以自己的勤劳智慧

The Chinese people, through hard work and ingenuity,

创造了灿烂的中华文明,为人类文明进步作出了重大贡献。

have created the splendid Chinese civilization and contributed significantly to human progress.


7. 北京就是一座(预测)有3000多年悠久历史的文明古城,800多年前北京开始建都。

Beijing, (预测)a citywith a history dating back 3000 years, became the nation’s capital over800 years ago.


8. 离今晚会场人民大会堂不远(等待)的地方,

(等待)A short distance from the Great Hall ofthe People, where we are in right now,

就是举世闻名的故宫。

is the world renowned Forbidden City.


9. 故宫始建于600年前,

It was first built about 600 years ago

是世界上现存最大(等待)最完整的古代宫殿建筑群。

and is the largest and most complete ensemble of ancient royal architecture inexistence in the world.


10. 从历史悠久的北京和建筑精美的故宫这些缩影中,

From Beijing’s age-old past and the majestic Forbidden City,

人民就能够生动地感受到中华文明源远流长、博大精深的深厚底蕴,

people can learn vividly the originality and greatness of the Chinese civilization

感受到中华民族自强不息、顽强奋进的壮阔历程。

and know the vigor and pioneering spirit of the Chinese nation.


11. 19世纪中叶以后,由于列强的野蛮侵略和封建统治的腐败无能,

Beginning in the mid-19th century, due to brutal foreign aggressions and corrupt and incompetent feudal rulers,

中华民族陷入了丧权辱国、民不聊生的悲惨境地。

China suffered a series of humiliating defeats and the people anguished in poverty and starvation.


12. 面对内忧外患,中国人民不懈抗争,

Faced with domestic suffering and foreign invasion, Chinese people fought back persistently.

终于在中国共产党领导下建立了新中国。

Finally, under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, they built up a New China.


13. 新中国建立以来,

Since the foundation of the New China,

特别是1978年实行邓小平先生倡导的改革开放政策以来,

and particularly since 1978, when Mr. Deng Xiaoping pioneered the implementation of reform and opening-up policy,

中国发生了前所未有的深刻变革。

China has undergone an unprecedented transformation.


14. 从1978年到2004年的26年间,

From 1978 to 2004,

中国国内生产总值从1473亿美元增长到16494亿美元,

China’s GDP increased from 147.3 billion US dollars to 1.6494 trillion US dollars

年均增长9.4%;

with an average annual growth rate of 9.4%.


15. 进出口总额从206亿美元增长到11548亿美元,

Its foreign trade rose from 20.6 billion US dollars to 1.1548 trillion US dollars,

年均增长超过16%;

averaging an annual growth rate of over 16%.

16. 中国人民 // 在继续和发扬古老文明(等待)的基础上创造了新的历史。

Chinese people, (等待)while inheriting and carrying forward their proud past,are writing a new chapter in history.


阳光创译的核心定位已经由最初的“阳光创译=矿业翻译”——中国地质矿业翻译领军品牌逐渐延伸扩展成“阳光创译=中国国际矿业服务大平台”,涵盖矿业翻译、矿业会展、矿业咨询、矿业猎头、“一带一路”矿业商会、矿业媒体等国际矿业服务板块。

打造中国地质矿业翻译领军品牌。


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